Comparison is a standard strategy of the rational mind. But in standard rational comparisons, the strategy is reductive. Meanings and relationships are delimited and almost surgically separated by the logic of rational mind functions. Not so in metaphor. When comparisons are made in the metaphoric mode, a synergic kind of transformation takes place. Consider for example Alfred Noyes' famous line from "The Highwayman": "The road was a ribbon of moonlight over the purple moor. Metaphors always extend the network of possibilities in thinking. These processes are part of a transition from personal, egoically directed attention towards a less focused, more impersonal, detached, and "expanded" transpersonal awareness.
The egoic self, that is, the self-as-construct, undergoes transformation as self-stabilizing, self-reflective cognitive processing abates. The induction of altered, mythic, or shamanic Hamer, consciousness effects a transformation in the individual's ontological and metaphysical orientations. This is referenced by alterations in the sense of identity or "existential self" [Peters, ] and one's changed relationship towards the altered physical reality.
Healers describe how attention is directed away from cognitive systems supporting the ordinary self-construct or identity state , including the physical and the personal or "biographical" [Grof, ] self that is maintained through memory and serves as an index against which one compares his or her present state of being. Thus, the existential changes produced through the healer's absorption within a metaphorical, or mythic, reality is the sine qua non of transpersonal healing: This is supported by the healers' ranked averages of significant experiential areas.
Taxonomy A taxonomy of transpersonal healers was developed on the basis of the research findings. Figure 1 presents a distribution of the 20 transpersonal healers whose experiences were analyzed in this research. This includes 4 spiritual healers and 2 psychic healers who, based upon their sharing of a common designation, should fall into the same category.
Distribution and taxonomic classification of 20 transpersonal healers based upon estimates of level of consciousness and the structure of metaphorical constructs derived from content analysis and interview materials. Based upon an analysis of ITHE scores and responses, the healers' configurations of consciousness i. Although healers generally implement a range of beliefs as indicated by the horizontal bars intersecting with the circles , only those that are central to their efforts represented by the circles are used in the plotting.
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It is assumed that the stabilizing and organizing functions of the self-system in relation to physical and social realities plays a major role in maintaining and governing the configuration of ordinary consciousness Tart, a. Intermediate consciousness represents a less extreme stage lying between ordinary and altered consciousness, in which various features of ordinary and nonordinary consciousness co-exist in varying proportions. The predominant features distinguishing the three levels of consciousness is the degree of alteration in the sense of self, including personal identity.
Within ordinary consciousness, self-awareness is generally intact. At the level of intermediate consciousness, the external reality-testing of the perceiving egoic self is weakened, but is present at points during the process. As a result, experients reported awareness of features of ordinary consciousness juxtaposed against aspects of nonordinary consciousness. The metaphorical constructs used by transpersonal healers are categorized into those that are realistic, metaphysical, and quasi-realistic.
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The polar opposite involves metaphysical mythic, spiritual, and religious constructs and symbols e. The quasi-realistic category includes a variety of hybrid constructs used to synthesize the disparity between the two poles e. All categories refer to metaphors in the sense that they represent meaningful belief constructs expressed as figures of speech "in which one thing is likened to another, different thing by being spoken of as if it were that other" Webster's Deluxe Unabridged, , p.
The types of metaphor differ, however, in terms of their being proximal or distal to conventional culturally shared and validated beliefs. Reality-based metaphors, for example, are referents designating one or more aspects of physical reality. These denote some type of healing-related "energy," force, or object that is based, with a greater or lesser degree of conformity, upon objects or concepts found within the consensual world view.
In contrast, metaphysical metaphors, by virtue of their abstraction , appear to operate as symbols. They tend to be more conceptually remote from ordinary physical reality and refer to profound, expansive, and complex meanings extending beyond the forms in which they are expressed to the conscious mind. Quasi-realistic metaphors tend to reconcile the disparity existing between physical and metaphysical concepts. They are often characterized by a constructs offering explanations that betoken a reduced dependency upon physical reality, emphasizing special abilities or traits e.
A curvilinear relationship between the healers' level of consciousness and types of metaphorical constructs used is indicated. The arc connecting classes 1 through 5 suggests that the configurations of consciousness associated with transpersonal healing exist as discrete states distributed along a continuum from those that are most dependent upon ordinary or nonordinary consciousness and rely upon realistic and quasi-realistic constructs to those in which consciousness is extensively altered, and metaphysical spiritual, religious beliefs are emphasized.
Using these two types of metaphorical constructs as coordinates, six healing types are identified. This cluster includes individuals who identify themselves as a magnetic healer, psychic healer, a transmitter of universal energy, and a practitioner of laying on of hands. They a rely upon rational processes to "treat" and explain their behaviors, b maintain ordinary or near-ordinary consciousness, and c maintain an ordinary sense of self during treatment.
Although they stress reality-based constructs, quasi-realistic constructs are depended upon most heavily. They are not adverse to supporting the notion that subconscious operations play some role in the healing process e. Class I healers are expected to rely most heavily upon physical focusing devices to supplement or amplify their healing treatment and diagnosis e.
This group consists of a transformational healer, psychic healer, spiritual healer, energy healer, and therapeutic touch healer. However, Class 2 healers may use their hands to focus and "sense. An effort is made to access unconscious processes for diagnosis and treatment.
This group often reports transegoic threshold, or "access level," phenomena e. Egoic operations are present, although weakened, and may be reported as apposing subconscious processes. These individuals include a LeShan Type I healer and a natural healer. As in Class 2, they report moderate-to-extreme alterations in consciousness, but emphasize nonreality-based abstract, formless and nonspiritual constructs e. Whereas Class 2 healers incorporate mediational constructs e. Class 2a is characterized by healers' attempts to suspend beliefs in both physical and metaphysical metaphors and to not utilize mythic beliefs.
However, belief in consciousness as an extended, nonlocal entity and "merging" as an ability presumed to facilitate healing remain fundamental to their practices. Class 2a is, therefore, less dependent on physical and spiritual constructs than Class 2, but more grounded in personal experience and a belief in special abilities. Class 3 includes a spirit healer and a spiritual healer.
Both undergo extensive transegoic alterations of consciousness and emphasize both realistic and quasi-realistic constructs, although expressed beliefs may run the gamut from reality based to spiritual nonreality based. One individual Worrall experienced mediumistic phenomena prior to her "intuitive" healing experiences; the other Edwards, received training in mediumistic practices, but later Edwards, disavowed the need for a trance state in healing.
Unlike Class 1, healers in Class 4 claim to transfer energy through full identification with a quasi-realistic energy. Although this is the primary method, they may identify with the healee at times during treatment. Their experience is characterized by an extensive transegoic alteration of consciousness and a complete loss of self. This group includes a Christian Science healer, a Science of Mind healer, and two "spiritual healers.
Although spiritual healers combine quasi-realistic constructs with nonreality-based constructs, the combination produces the most unstructured and conceptually remote cognition to be found among all groups. A Continuum of Consciousness Figure 2 presents the five classes and one subclass of healers placed within a three-dimensional context based upon a the type s of metaphorical or mythic constructs used, b the generalized reality orientation Shor, , and c the healers' experienced sense of self. Figure 2. Ordinary and cosmic consciousness Bucke, are used as points against which changes in the healers' consciousness are referenced.
Cosmic consciousness is described as an expanded, nirvana-like awareness that transcends self-consciousness. It has as its prime characteristics a consciousness of the cosmos, that is, of the life and order of the universe Bucke, , p. Proceeding along the continuum, Classes 2 and 2a are intermediate in their use of metaphorical constructs and increased alteration in the generalized reality-orientation and sense of self.
Classes 3, 4, and 5 undergo the most radical changes towards non-egoic operations and absorption within an alternate mythical, metaphysical reality. The Shamanic Complex and Inherency Shamanism is the concept that is most closely represented by the findings of this research see Halifax, ; Larsen, The shamanic capacity to transcend the personal self, to enter into multiform identifications, to access and synthesize alternate perspectives and realities, and to find solutions and acquire extraordinary abilities used to aid the community bears a remarkable resemblance to transpersonal healing experiences.
Webster's New World Dictionary defines a complex as "a group of interrelated ideas, activities. When Halifax refers to shamanism as an ecstatic religious complex, she uses this sense of the word "complex" to designate systems of behaviors and psychological characteristics that have survived over millennia and are found, in remarkably similar forms, throughout the world.
Winkelman uses the term "shamanic complex" in association with the status, beliefs, roles, and activities of shamanic practitioners that are organized about a single role or category p. In this research, however, the meanings of "complex" stated above are synthesized with the Jungian Jung, sense of the term, supplementing Halifax's and Winkelman's definitions by adding the notion of inherency: A complex is a multileveled construct that refers to behaviors, feelings, roles, thoughts, and perceptions constellated about, and expressive of, a central, inherent tendency or instinct , the emergence of which is shaped by an interaction of personal and sociocultural structures, needs, conditions, and demands.
Instincts are universal, sequential, species-specific patterns of adaption Munn, Tension-reducing behaviors are expressed in the form of nonacquired, or unlearned, adaptive behaviors Lorenz, The unpremeditated, reflexive mystical experiences of Deikman's a untrained-sensates involve the discharge of an organismic response through an encounter with nature or a drug experience.
These events are characterized by involuntary alterations of consciousness, altered perception of one's relationship to the world and one's body, fleeting changes in one's sense of identity, and "expanded" awareness. Although these features are similar to those reported by trained mystics, they do not result from disciplined meditation or prayer and do not conform to any specific philosophical cosmology.
No action is taken, nor is an action mode a common feature of the experience: It is primarily an altered, receptive mode of processing Deikman, , not easily explainable through conditioning or expectations, but possibly an inadvertent activation of the first phase of an endogenous potential in a situation lacking demand characteristics also see Irwin, b, for references to spontaneous extrasensory experiences and percipients' possible need for absorbed mentation [p.
This is illustrated by an interviewee's statement: I was 11 years old at the [war]front. My friend was blown to pieces and another one was hurt and no doctor, no nothing. He's bleeding. He mustn't bleed! I grab the wound and hold it. I don't know where I got that power. And I picked up earth and held it [against him] and he healed.
There as a sense of direction from an internal source of guidance that is experienced as foreign to one's ordinary self. Drive reduction and reduced somatic sensations signal that the need has been satisfied. At times there is an intuitive sense of whether the effort was successful. The desired traits of shaman initiates vary from culture to culture. Shamanic behaviors have been associated with neurosis Devereux, , psychosis e.
Thus, in some societies the shamanic candidate may be identified by the characteristics associated with an inherently unstable sense of identity and ease of regression followed by the accession of subconscious processes, contents, and abilities: [Accession is] the capacity which serves to make available more remote, or ego-dystonic, forms of awareness and information processing Accession first requires a regressive withdrawal from consensus reality, with its social and cultural organizing principles of space, time, causality, and personal definition. Cooperstein, , p.
In a study of Apache shamans, Boyer, Klopfer, Brawer, and Kawai analyzed Rorschach protocols gathered from 12 Apache shamans, 52 nonshamans, and 7 pseudoshamans i. They found that the shamans' reality testing and approach toward ambiguous stimuli was equivalent to that of the nonshamanic group.
Shamans, however, provided indications suggesting a greater ease of regression, greater awareness, more tolerance of ambiguity, and a stronger orientation towards theoretical thinking. Following selection, shaman initiates undergo an educational indoctrination in the metaphysics of the culture including its transpersonal symbols [see Assagioli, They learn the techniques of ecstasy i.
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During the experiential phase, however, the trainee is guided towards fully experiencing an initiatory "death" of self, a powerful, ontologically transforming experience: I was swirling and whirling, and I felt like I was falling to the center of the earth. And as I was going down there were creatures on all sides of me. And they would rip and tear, take pieces from me as I went down. And when I hit bottom they all descended on me and tore me up I accepted it all.
I obeyed the fear and went with it. I was torn until some spirit-some force-cried Stop! And then I began to be put back together again. And as I was coming together again I didn't recognize what I saw coming together as me Instead of being structured , 1 was structured and 4. That 4 was very important, it made the whole thing more than it had been. Halifax, , p. Upon completion, or "rebirth," the consciousness of the initiate is reintegrated and transformed in a manner similar to that described above. In outline, the essence of the shamanic complex includes features that are strikingly similar to those found in transpersonal healing: 1.
The shaman mobilizes a preparatory set by establishing functionally determined conditions under which his or her intent is expected to manifest. Generally, these contexts take the form of rituals and ceremonies during which symbols associated with the shaman's helping spirit aid in his or her identification with the spirit's powers to escape the confines of the profane world and enter into "sacred time" and its associated mythic reality.
Through the alteration of consciousness, the shaman's ordinary sense of self is changed, and he or she enters into an intense, mystical identification with guardian spirits that guide his or her travels through the projected, alternate realities constructed from the culture's mythology; the combination of factors effectively modifies the shaman's metaphysical orientation and operations. By assuming an alternate identity or "alter ego" , the shaman acquires nonordinary abilities within the rituals, some of which remain after completion of the "journey.
It appears to have a transpersonal, transcultural, psychological, and physiological infrastructure underlying the different methods, beliefs, and contexts within which such an inherent tendency is activated: "The inherent psychobiological predisposition to achieve the [Shamanic State of Consciousness] is not culture bound and is perhaps universal in the species" Noll, , p.
The Shamanic Roots of Transpersonal Healing Like shamans, trained transpersonal healers establish a preparatory set, voluntarily alter their consciousness, diminish their ordinary sense of self, and identify with mythic constructs. Transpersonal healers differ, however, in their personal selection of mediational constructs from among the heterogeneous beliefs found in Western societies, rather than adopting those that are consonant with an overarching cultural paradigm.
The transpersonal healers studied here also differ in the complete absence of shamanic "flights. Shamanic-like "flights" may be represented, however, in nonhealing-related ecsomatic experiences, such as near-death experiences Moody, , traveling clairvoyance Grof, , and out-of-body experiences Irwin, a; Monroe, Thus, transpersonal healing appears to be a contemporary adaptation of the shamanic complex, a core process from which the variety of transpersonal healing methods evolved. The reduced activity of the dominant hemisphere may be a precursor to the appearance of hemispheric synchronization and changes in power spectra.
Similarly, Winkelman hypothesizes that the methods used to alter consciousness among magico-religious practitioners may produce a trophotrophic response, hemispheric synchronization, and parasympathetic nervous system dominance "in which the frontal cortex is dominated by slow wave patterns originating in the lower centers of the brain" pp. It should be recalled, however, that two healers provide descriptions suggesting that arousal level or sympathetic dominance is increased; this hyperarousal may, however, lead to a physiological collapse and the onset of a trophotrophic state Fischer, Hence Krieger's EEG data, in combination with the two healers who reported increased arousal, may provide indications of at least two variants in a possible range of physiological patterns among transpersonal healers that merits further investigation.
Although provocative, the results presented here are provisional and require further empirical investigation and refinement. The data are based upon systematically gathered and analyzed reports of personal experience among transpersonal healers; they require correlation with verified healing effects.
The data suggest, however, that the traditional methods of classifying transpersonal healing types may be refined by developing a process based rather than context-based systems approach. Transpersonal healers as well as indigenous healers, parapsychological subjects, etc. The motivational source of anomalous healing may lie within an endogenous, organismic thrust towards holistic functioning. The scientific preoccupation with the control and measurement of empirical effects must be counterbalanced by providing equal attention to investigations of the psychological and physiological processes of healers and healees or target materials.
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In fact, earlier today we were reading about all of the different types of prayers and there are plenty. The title of the book is just perfect is the breath prayer was the first of our topics to read today. This is the basic prayer and its intention is taking your heart to God, with a focus on simplicity. Perfect beginni We were attracted to this second-time published piece simply because of the title. Perfect beginning!
Lyda goes into the gifts from God, as they pertain to our prayer life. Life as a Prayer is well-organized, thoughtful and offers inquiries to make the reader think. This is not simply a list of prayers to mutter, for the sake of praying. Apr 26, Gail Welborn rated it really liked it Shelves: reviews. They are especially useful for times of emotional turmoil that leave us emotionally spent, without words, unable to pray. That's not an uncommon occurrence today as our nation adjusts to the "new normal" caused by the housing bubble and collapse of the U.
Since then foreclosures are common, jobs lost, never to be regained and many continue life in a whirlwind of loss, grief and unanticipated change. Others struggle with health diagnoses like cancer, Alzheimer's or degenerative heart disease that cause fear of the unknown, emotional stress and anxiety that disrupts marriages, families and meaningful relationships. These one-minute prayers and scriptures offer comfort and hope with relevant Bible verses, brief readings and prayer that invite readers to pause and "experience the still and quiet voice of God.
Carleen rated it it was amazing Apr 18, Janet Haworth rated it it was amazing Oct 22, Michelle marked it as to-read Dec 22, Tracy Hall marked it as to-read Jan 09, Murriel marked it as to-read Feb 19, Trisha Chavis marked it as to-read Apr 29, Tara MacKenzie marked it as to-read Jun 15, Lemniskate67 added it Mar 28, Annette Hamilton added it Aug 03, Sonu marked it as to-read Mar 19, Nellie added it May 27, There are no discussion topics on this book yet. About Hope Lyda. Hope Lyda. Hope Lyda has worked in publishing for ten years and is the author of Hip to Be Square in addition to several nonfiction titles, including the One-Minute Prayers series more than , copies sold.
When not journaling or aspiring to write and travel, Hope enjoys her work as an editor and living life in Oregon with her husband. Books by Hope Lyda. Trivia About One-Minute Prayer