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Conclusions The Fisher's exact test did not support a significant association between clinical outcome and genotype. Furthermore, the cagE gene is a good marker for identifying cag-PAI positive strains. Helicobacter pylori. Palabras clave:. Introduction Helicobacter pylori H. Methods Subjects and clinical samples. The prevailing diagnoses were: gastroesophageal reflux disease, acid peptic disease, and recurrent abdominal pain.

The Ethics Committee of the Hospital General approved the study protocol in advance. Multiplex primer sets. Figure 1. The past program and simple matching coefficient were used. Figure 2. Figure 3. Comparison of virulence gene detection between conventional and multiplex PCR. We obtained false negative values when the results were compared by conventional PCR.


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EpiInfo TM program. Highlighted in black: the highest percentages of each gene or allele. Table 5. Association between gene virulence and clinical outcome. Table 6. Saribas, H. Demir, T. Saltik, et al. Detection of cagA prevalence in clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. Mikrobiyol Bul, 44 , pp. Suzuki, S. Shiota, Y. Molecular epidemiology, population genetics, and pathogenic role of Helicobacter pylori. Infect Genet Evol, 12 , pp. Mechanism of disease: Helicobacter pylori virulence factors.

Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 7 , pp. The clinical relevance of strain types of Helicobacter pylori. Gut, 40 , pp. Atherton, P. Cao, Peek JrR. Mosaicism in vacuolating cytotoxin alleles of Helicobacter pylori. Association of specific vacA types with cytotoxin production and peptic ulceration. J Biol Chem, , pp. Chung, A. Olivares, E.

Torres, et al. Diversity of VacA intermediate region among Helicobacter pylori strains from several regions of the world. J Clin Microbiol, 48 , pp. Higashi, R. Tsutsumi, A. Fujita, et al.

Hispania. Volume 78, Number 3, September 1995

Biological activity of the Helicobacter pylori virulence factor cagA i s determined by variation in the tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Day, N. Jones, J. Lynett, et al. J Infect Dis, , pp. Pelz, S. Steininger, C. Weiss, et al. A novel inhibitory domain of Helicobacter pylori protein CagA reduces CagA effects on host cell biology. Homan, A. Sterbenc, B. Kocjan, et al. Prevalence of the Helicobacter pylori babA2 gene and correlation with the degree of gastritis in infected Slovenian children.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, , pp. Almeida, M. Donato, J. Correlation of Helicobacter pylori genotypes with gastric histopathology in the central region of a South-European country. Dig Dis Sci, 60 , pp. Fujimoto, O. Ojo, A. Arnqvist, et al. Helicobacter pylori BabA expression, gastric mucosal injury, and clinical outcome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 5 , pp. Olfat, Q. Zheng, M. Oleastro, et al.

Correlation of the Helicobacter pylori adherence factor BabA with duodenal ulcer disease in four European countries. Gerhard, N. Lehn, N. Neumayer, et al. Clinical relevance of the Helicobacter pylori gene for blood-group antigen-binding adhesion. Akopyanz, K.

Eaton, D. Adaptive mutation and co-colonization during Helicobacter pylori infection of gnotobiotic piglets. Infect Immun, 63 , pp. Multiple infection and microdiversity among Helicobacter pylori isolates in a single host in India. PLoS One. Marouni, S. Fate of Streptococcus pyogenes and epithelial cells following internalization. J Med Microbiol, 53 , pp. Prouzet, M. Abid, H. Lamouliatte, et al.

Pathogen evolution in vivo: Genome dynamics of two isolates obtained 9 years apart from duodenal ulcer patient infected with a single Helicobacter pylori strain. J Clin Microbiol, 43 , pp. Sampieri, M. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: A public health priority. World J Gastroenterol, 20 , pp. Herrera, E. Helicobacter pylori: Detection of iceA 1 and iceA 2 genes in the same strain in Mexican isolates.

Arc Med Res, 43 , pp. Morales, et al. J Clin Microbiol, 49 , pp. Akopyanz, N. Bukanov, T. Westblom, et al. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina. Introduction Despite advances in antisepsis and operating technique, surgical site infections SSI are a considerable problem for patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. This section did not include infections detected after other surgical procedures, such as those of the small intestine, as the flora that causes infections in this location may vary depending on their proximal or distal location.

The results of microbiological studies and other complementary tests were especially examined. Results The number of Spanish hospitals participating in the EPINE study has increased progressively, exceeding hospitals after The microbiology test results are detailed in Table 1 by infection location. The number of isolates was counted in the row corresponding to its type. Kirby, J. Surg Clin N Am, 89 , pp. Emori, R. An overview of nosocomial infections, including the role of the microbiology laboratory. Clin Microbiol Rev, 6 , pp.

Smith, J. Bohl, S. McElearney, C. Friel, M. Barclay, R. Sawyer, et al. Wound infection after elective colorectal resection. Ann Surg, , pp. The economic costs of surgical site infection. Surg Infect Larchmt , 3 , pp. Pessaux, S. Msika, D. Atalla, J. Hay, Y. French Association for Surgical Research Risk factors for postoperative infectious complications in noncolorectal abdominal surgery: a multivariate analysis based on a prospective multicenter study of patients.

Arch Surg, , pp. Culver, T. Horan, R. Gaynes, W. Martone, W. Jarvis, T. Emori, et al. Surgical wound infection rates by wound class, operative procedure, and patient risk index. Am J Med, 91 , pp. Edwards, K. Peterson, M. Andrus, M. Dudeck, D. Pollock, T. Am J Infect Control, 36 , pp. Haridas, M. Predictive factors for surgical site infection in general surgery. Surgery, , pp. Bermejo, B. Oronoz, J. Herrera, A. Tarifa, F. Cir Esp, 79 , pp.

Weiss, C. Statz, R. Dahms, M. Remucal, D. Dunn, G. Six years of surgical wound infection surveillance at a tertiary care center: review of the microbiologic and epidemiological aspects of 20, wounds. Mangram, T. Horan, M. Pearson, L. Silver, W. Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 20 , pp.

Augustin, N. Kermarrec, C. Muller-Serieys, S. Lasocki, D. Chosidow, J. Marmuse, et al. Risk factors for multidrug resistant bacteria and optimization of empirical antibiotic therapy in postoperative peritonitis. Crit Care, 14 , pp. Montravers, A. Lepape, L. Dubreuil, R. Gauzit, Y. Pean, D. Benchimol, et al. Clinical and microbiological profiles of community-acquired and nosocomial intra-abdominal infections: results of the French prospective, observational EBIIA study. J Antimicrob Chemother, 63 , pp. Guirao, J. Arias, J. Mensa, F. Alvarez-Lerma, et al. Cir Esp, 87 , pp. Asensio, R.

Med Clin Barc , , pp. Gaunes, W. CDC definitions of nosocomial surgical site infection, A modification of CDC definitions of surgical wound infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 13 , pp. Garner, W. Emori, T. Horan, J. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, Am J Infect Control, 16 , pp.

Villar-Canovas, D. Nosocomial infection and related risk factors in a general surgery service: a prospective study. J Infect, 46 , pp. Inaba, B. Eberle, T. Microbiological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility in surgical site infections following hollow viscus injury. J Gastrointest Surg, 14 , pp.

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Mosdell, D. Morris, A. Voltura, D. Pitcher, M. Twiest, R. Milne, et al. Antibiotic treatment for surgical peritonitis. Tellado, S. Sen, M. Caloto, R. Kumar, G. Consequences of inappropriate initial empiric parenteral antibiotic therapy among patients with community-acquired intra-abdominal infections in Spain. Scand J Infect Dis, 39 , pp. Roehrborn, L. Thomas, O. Potreck, C. Ebener, C. Ohmann, P. Goretzki, et al. The microbiology of postoperative peritonitis. Clin Infect Dis, 33 , pp. Cisneros, J. Mensa, A. Trilla, M. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin, 20 , pp.

Dahms, E. Johnson, C. Statz, J. Lee, D. Beilman, et al. Third generation cephalo-sporins and vancomycin as risk factors for postoperative vancomycin resistant enterococcus infection. Is the white matter beneath pebbles. In the Chonos Isl ds we must imagine bituminous shales have been metamorphised, as in Brazil feruginous sandy ones have undergone the same process. Neither lakes or Avalanches Glaciers very rare to cause floods in valleys, which must aid in preserving the terraces [Molina's Case] At Vesuvius.

Vol III P. There may have been oscillations in the upheaval of Andes. Grand Seco at B. Ayres; mention about the deer approaching the wells. In Rio paper. Gay's fact about shells: 85 Hibernation of fresh water Shells. Ferruginous veins of this figure in sandstone: evidently depend on a concretionary contraction: the fact is in alliance with those balls at Chiloe full of sand.

New Red Sandstone. In Patagonia. De la Beche. M r Lyell P. When mentioning pumice of Bahia Blanca, mention black scoriaceous rocks of R Chupat. Fossil bones black as if from peat. Lyell It is clear the forces have acted with far more regularity in S. America: in France we have freshwater lakes unequally elevated, which movements if present in the Andes, would have destroyed regularity of slope of valleys. Read description of channels or grooves in rocks at Costorphine hills. Pisolitic balls occur in the Ashes which fill up theatre of Pompeei?

Read geology of N. Oceanic Isles. Geology of whole world will turn out simple. Fortunate for this science. Africa — on one side. America on the other: The extreme frequency of soft materials being consolidated; one inclines to belief all strata of Europe formed near coast. Humboldts quotation of instability of ground at present. In Cord: after seeing small Bombs. Hyd: Carb: A. Mur: A. I do not believe that the extraordinary fissures of the ground at Calabria were present at the Concepcion earthquake. Ulloa states that Volcanos!! The great rains which attend severe Earthquakes [ ?

Chili, where rains are so infrequent; so as to exclaim [ as I have heard ] how lucky! Scopes explanation of low Barometer? In a subsiding area. Volcanos must be considered as chemical retorts. How are they eliminated. Yet the fluid granitic mass under less pressure might have its [ proportional ] particles altered. With respect to Volcanic theory. I want to ground, that the first phenomem. I consider latter as accidental on the afflux of the former.

Did wave first retreat at Juan Fernandez: the first great movement was one of rise any smaller prior ones might have been owing to absolute movement of ground. Michell Philos:. Transacts [ seems to ] consider that fall first movement as in Peru Therefore motion of sea ought to be considered as a plain movement communicated to it as well as by the vertical as lateral movement.

Is it not same as swell travelling across Pacifick. Earthquake wave is an oscillation, body of water manifestly does not travel up. In great Calabrian wave did not sea break first? In Patagonia plains. Darby mentions beds of marine shells on banks of Red River Louisiana. State at St Helena. On a sea beach under a cascade, one can understand pebbles thus coated. In the History of S America we cannot dive into the causes of the losses of the [ species of ] Mastodons.

To the Megatherium. Feeling surprise at Mastodon inhabiting plains of Patagonia is removed by reflecting on the nature of the country in which the Rhinoceros lives in S. Africa: the same caution is applicable to the Siberia case. We must not think alluvial plains [ always ] most favourable; In what part of the globe are there such vast numbers of wild animals.

It would be well to quote Burchell. In Patagonia, are all beds same age? In Chiloe curvilinear strata subsidence. In Cordill: should basal lavas be called Volcanic or Plutonic The cellular state of all the Porphyry specimens, must be well examined. Video [ facts of Passages marked by do. Slates contemporaneous others subsequent. In Granite great crystals arranged on sides. Tres Montes become more siliceous in close contact? Must we look at regular greenstone cones at S.

Why not more probably greenstone? What probable origin can be given to the numerous hills of greenstone? Sir George Mackenzie must be worth reading Some earthquakes of Sumatra no connection with a neighbouring Volcano of Priamang. Roussin states that generally in North part of Brazil. What is nature of strip of Mountain Limestone in N. Breccia — Stratification? Anomalous action of ocean. H Davy experiment on the copper bottom. Clay slates unfavourable to attachment of many bodies. Shores of Pacifick, as compared to whole E. When discussing Falkland soundings introduce this discussion.

During a period of subsidence the shinglle of Patagonia would become more or less interstratified with sediment. In my Cleavage paper D r Fittons Australia case must be quoted at length. The Lines of Mountain appear to me to be effect of expansions acting at great depths mem: profound earthquakes , which would cause parallel lines, but the rectangular intersections are singular—. Grand tertiary formation of Payta: N. New Zeeland rich in particular genera of plants: All St. Chapt VIII. Shells at Concepcion 50 toises above the sea.

Urge cliff form of land, in St Helena. No cliffs at Ascension or modern streams of St Jgo yet no historical records of eruptions how immense the time!! How well agrees with number of Craters! Gone into fine sediment Look at St Helena!! There are some arguments which strike the mind with force. The common occurrence of a breccia of primitive rocks between that formation and the secondary stated in Playfair to be the case p.

In discussing circulation of fluid nucleus, — the similarity of Volcanic products [ over whole world ] argument, as well as separating causes by water. But Volcanic action separates some sulphur perhaps lime salt. Consider well age of Bones. Hermoso contemp:. Africa productions. I think in Patagonia white beds having proceeded from gravel proved.

Urge fact of Boulders not in lower strata. Remember idea of frozen bottom [ or beach ] of sea to explain preserved animals. Sir J. Herschel says precip. State the circumstances of appearance at Concepcion[. Effects of great waves to obliterate all land marks. If we look at Elevations as constantly going on we shall see a cause for Volcanos part of same phenomena lasting so long.

The great movements not mere patches as in Italy proved by Coral hypoth. Voyage aux terres Australs Vol. Bailly says. Toutes ces montagnes. All the Calcareous rocks which harden by themselves cannot be pure. In Igneous rocks. As the rude symmetry of the globe shows powers have acted from great depths, so changes, acting in those lines.

Decemb Earthquake at Demerara. Bollingbroke voyage to the Demerary Earthquakes at St Helena. June , Sept 21 st. Webster Antarctic veg: Study Ulloa to see if Indian habitation above regions of vegetation. Urge the mineralogical difference of formations of S. The red Sandstone of Andes fusible? Consult W. M r Owen's curious fact about Crust [word begun: Br Henslow Speculate on neutral ground of 2 ostriches; bigger one encroaches on smaller.

Zorilla: Keeling: at sea so commonly seen. Should urge that extinct Llama owed its death not to change of circumstances; reversed argument. The same kind of relation that common ostrich bears to Petisse. An argument for the Crust of globe being thin, may be drawn. M r Birchell says Elephant lives on very wretched countries thinly covered by vegetation. Says at Santos [ M Birchel[s? May I not generalize the fact glaciers most abundant in interior channels. Fitz Roy. Urge enormous quantity of matter from crevice of Andes — therefore flowed towards it. Investigate with greater care.

Kerguelen Land. Prince Edwards Is d. Specimens of rocks were brought home in [written over 'by'] Capt. Degrading of inland bays. Form of land shows subsidence in T. Cook found soundings. Christmas sound. Stones as bigger than a man's head. Important in forming transverse valleys. Sir W. Parish says they have Earthquakes in Cordoba. M r Murchison insisted strongly.

Silliman Journal. American geology. Conybeare Coleccion de obras. Parish says. Indio to Quilmes. The Cordoba earthquake a very remarkable phenomenon. Video [ Volcano in Pampas ]. M r Sowerby. Lyell suggested to me that no metals in Polynesian Isl ds —. Volcanos only burst out where strata in act of dislocation NB.

Problem dislocate strata without ejection of the fluid propelling mass. If one inch can be raised then all can, for fresh layers of igneous rock replace strata. When recollecting Gulf of California. Beagle Channel. The 24 ft. Quantity of matter from Cordillera. Consider profoundly the sandstone of the Portillo line. A in this strata may be older than B. Analogous to Von Buch. Basalt where Basalt. The structure of ice in columns. When we see Avestruz two species. In botany instances diametrically opposite have been instanced: it is.

Let it not be overlooked that except by trees, I could not see trace of Subsidence at Uspallata. According to M r Brown, a person whom I met at S. Iron in Edinburgh. Volcanic product. If wood now preserved over world Dicotyledons far preponderant, if so coniferous must formerly have been most abundant tree —. Sir Woodbine Parish informs me that town near Tucuman and Salta. Kingdom N. Vol III p. Brown Collect: [ of F. How utterly incomprehensible that if meteoric stones simply pitched from moon, that the metals should be those which have magnetic properties. Study well products of Solfatarias.

Barytes: —. New Spain. Vol III. Spain great analogy to Hungary. We here have case of such vapours washing a rock ] Veins concretionary; concretions determined by fissures as in septaria. Then Solfataras. II Journal of Nat. H says in Potosi the silver is contained in a primitive slate, covered by a clayey porphyry, containing grenats. In Peru. Humboldt suggests covered up by volcanic rocks. Klaproth analysed silver ores from Peru consisted of native silver. Fluor spar only in certain mines. Geology of Guanuaxuato.

Journal des Mines I think I have much additional information Balls of Silver ore occur in do veins. Humboldt says, mur of Silv. Humboldt states that some of the richest gold mines on. P Australia, C. New Spain Vol. The back cover of the Red Notebook, labelled 'R.

Strasbourg, London, , , This work exercised a formative influence on the development of geology as a science in the nineteenth century and on the career of Charles Darwin, F. This entry in the notebook is in light brown ink. This entry is in light brown ink, and written over the immediately preceding series of dates. The dates pertain to the departure of H. Beagle from England. The Beagle sailed from England Tuesday 27 December The ship encountered heavy seas, caused by gales elsewhere, on Thursday 29 December For Darwin's description of the Beagle's departure see his letter to his father of 8 February-1 March in Nora Barlow, ed.

Also see N. Barlow, ed. Beagle Cambridge, , pp. Darwin could have recorded the date of the Beagle's departure in this notebook at any time during the voyage. This entry is in light brown ink, indicating a later dating than the original entries on this page. The direction of the longer axis is placed parallel to the schistose laminae, which pass round the nodules.

Among them we. Samuel P. Darwin met Capt. Henry and his father, a missionary, at Tahiti. See Robert Fitzroy, ed. See note Places-names and latitudes were checked against British Admiralty charts of the period. A bar with a dot over a number indicates that no bottom was found at that depth. Undoubtedly Darwin compiled this list from information available to him aboard ship. As a later addition it would appear to be a correction to the two figures immediately following, although only the '60' is actually cancelled.

The sense of the passage would be that at leagues from shore no bottom was found at fathoms. Beagle during its surveying voyage of , later vice-admiral in the navy and a meteorologist of considerable repute. It was with Fitzroy's assent that Charles Darwin became the Beagle's naturalist. For reference to Fitzroy's account of the Beagle's voyage see note Mrs Power is not mentioned otherwise in Darwin's notes.

The earthquakes of August 25, experienced by the shipwrecked crew of the Wager were described as "four great Earthquakes, three of which were very terrible; notwithstanding the violent Shocks and Tremblings of the Earth, we find no Ground shifted. Also see JR, p. In his treatment of the subject De La Beche did not discuss the shapes of individual pieces of gravel. Henslow to his friend C. Darwin on his departure from England upon a voyage round the World.

London, Alexander von Humboldt , a member of all major scientific academies, was the foremost scientific traveller of his day and a principal contributor to the science of geography. Herschel, F. Darwin met Herschel—"the most memorable event which, for a long period, I have had the good fortune to enjoy"—sometime between June during the Beagle's call at the Cape of Good Hope where Herschel was living, being then engaged in his four-year study of stars visible in the southern hemisphere.

See Diary, p. Months before, Herschel had described his new notion of the cause of volcanic action in a letter to Charles Lyell dated 20 February Probably he repeated the same explanation to Darwin in June. Herschel's letter to Lyell has been published by Walter F. See, for example, Herschel's summary comment to Lyell on p. The last is the most important. It must be an excessively slow process. Darwin's Diary , p. With Dr A. Smith who has lately returned from his most interesting expedition to beyond the Tropic, I took some long geological rambles. The H.

Chanticleer did not stop at Pernambuco [Recife] during its voyage, nor was Pernambuco on the Beagle's itinerary in June of , when this entry was presumably made. Given Darwin's apparent uncertainty in this entry about location, as indicated by his two cancellations, it may have been these passages which he had in mind. See William H. Granite and gneiss are the prevailing formation…. The rocks in some.

The lower parts of the granite hills were found chiefly in this condition; the granite having crumbled into micaceous sand and greasy unctuous clay. Precisely the same materials are found here as at Maranham, so that it would be impossible to distinguish them. It is a rare and unusual circumstance to find such a striking coincidence, in two different places.

The soil upon which the city stands is of clay and sand. The beds of clay are very extensive, and frequently thirty or forty feet deep. There is scarcely any rock, and that only in particular and isolated masses; it is a coarse dark iron sand-stone, with numerous particles of quartz in it…. This dark iron sand-stone, with fragments of white quartz, is observable at Maranham, and is the predominant formation at St. Paul's, a little to the southward of Rio.

The story was reprinted verbatim from The Times London , 28 March , p.

Honeybees disrupt the structure and functionality of plant-pollinator networks

See Fitzroy, ed. Fitzroy led the party which rescued the Challenger 's crew. Michell which appears whatever theory be formed to explain it, to be established by geological observation in so many other parts of the world,—that the outcrop of the inclined beds, throughout the stratified portion of the globe, is every. The back of page 1, of Darwin's geological notes on New Zealand is fol. The page contains a sketch of the silhouette of an island in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand.

Darwin noted that at high water the island had the figure of a hill and at low water the figure of a hill surrounded by a level ledge of naked rock. He associated the formation of the ledge with the action of the tides. This page in Darwin's geological notes also contains a cross-reference to 'R. At their summit a circular wall surrounds the crater; which wall, at a distance, has the appearance of a small cylinder placed on a truncated cone.

When we break these lavas, which might be taken at some distance for calcareous stone, we find in them a blackish brown nucleus. Porphyry with basis of pitch stone is whitened externally by the slow action of the vapors of sulphurous acid gas. It increases particularly on the 15th of June. May … …. Beginning of the earthquakes in the Island of St. Vincent, which lasted till May, December Beginning of the commotions in the valley of the Mississippi and Ohio, which lasted till April 30….

Eruption of the volcano in St. Vincents'; and the same day subterranean noises at Caraccas, and on the banks of the Apure. Almost all lavas he conceives to be a modification of trachyte, consisting essentially of felspar united with titaniferous iron, to which they owe their colour and their power of attracting iron…. This felspar is derived immediately from trachyte, that being the rock which directly surrounds the focus of the volcanic action; for if we examine the strata that successively present themselves on the sides of a crater, we are sure to find that the lowest in the series is trachyte, from which is derived by fusion the obsidian, as is the case at Teneriffe.

Thomson, now in the Museum of Edinburgh, there is said to be a fragment of lava enclosing a real granite, which is composed of reddish felspar with a pearly lustre like adularia, of quartz, mica, hornblende, and lazulite. I have likewise seen among the specimens from the Ponza Islands, …a piece of granite, or perhaps rather of a syenitic rock, …found in the midst of the trachyte from this locality.

It may be remarked, that these specimens of granitic rocks have, in general, a degree of brittleness, which accords very well with the notion of their exposure to fire. From that time until we took our final departure from this sea the bottom was always within reach of our common lines.

The water shoaled so gradually that at midnight on the 16th, after having run a hundred and fifty miles, we had thirty-one fathoms. The bottom was tolerably even; but we decreased the soundings to nine fathoms, about four miles off the western point, and changed the ground from fine sand, to stones and shingle. When we had passed the wedged-shaped cliff at the north-western point of the island, the soundings again deepened, and changed to sand, as at first….

Lawrence Island to this situation, the depth of the sea increased a little, until to the northward of King's Island, after which it began to decrease; but in the vicinity of the Diomede Islands, where the strait became narrowed, it again deepened, and continued between twenty-five and twenty-seven fathoms. The bottom, until close to the Diomedes, was composed of fine sand, but near them it changed to course stones and gravel, as at St.

Lawrence Island…. After crossing it, the water deepened, and the bottom again changed to mud, and we had ten and a half fathoms within two and a half miles of the coast. We made the land [St Lawrence Island] about the same place we had done the preceding year, stood along it to the northward, and passed its N. On the after-noon of the 2d we … anchored off Point Rodney…. The entire paragraph at the bottom of page 45e is scored for emphasis in light brown ink. La premiere fois qu'y alla M. This was the first pebble or stone of any sort I had seen since I left Buenos Ayres.

The savages of those countries don't know what a stone is, and have not even any notion of it. It is diversion enough to see some of them, when they come to Borja, and first meet with stones, express their admiration of them by signs, and be eager to pick them up; loading themselves therewith, as with a valuable merchandize; and soon after despise and throw them away, when they perceive them to be so common.

Fortunately, however, despite the fragmentary nature of the entry, there exists a reference in Darwin's notes from the voyage, again by way of addition made in light brown ink, which identifies the use of 'Carnatic' in this context. The Carnatic, and several other similar tracts, occurring along both coasts, are, as granitic plains, surprisingly level: the slight tertiary diluvium with which they are covered, cannot be considered as a principal cause of this uniformity, for the rock itself is everywhere found near the surface: every appearance here indicates the granitic formation has at one time been a great deal more flat than it is generally understood to have been.

See, for example, the use of 'rapilli' by Daubeny Volcanos, p. Lyell, Principles of Geology, vol.

In this passage Darwin would seem to be addressing Lyell's argument Principles of Geology, vol. Yet these fossils are frequently in the state of mere casts, so that in appearance they correspond very closely to organic remains found in limestones of very ancient date. Zoologie Paris, , vol. A thin parting band, approaching in its character to pitchstone, occasionally intervenes on the contact of the vertical dike and intersected beds.

Necker mentions one of these at the place called Primo Monte, in the Atrio del Cavallo; I saw three or four others in different parts of the great escarpment. A number of these animals had some time since entered the town in a body, to possess themselves of the wells, not being able to procure any water in the country. The inhabitants mustered, when a desperate conflict ensued, which terminated in the ultimate discomfiture of the invaders, but not until they had killed one man and wounded several others.

The effects of the waves, however, on either side are very unequal; on the western side the propelling and piling influence is considerable, while on the eastern, or that part between the bank and the main land, it is of trifling importance. Anthony, I was witness to a vast cloud of ashes being carried by the winds, and darkening the whole sky. It spread over great part of the jurisdiction of Buenos-Ayres, passed the River of Plata, and scattered it's contents on both sides of the river, in so much that the grass was covered with ashes.

This was caused by the eruption of a volcano near Mendoza; the winds carrying the light ashes to the incredible distance of three hundred leagues or more.


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As this happened exactly at the same time as the great earthquake of Caraccas, it is probably that these two points are parts of one continuous volcanic region…. It has been remarked … that from the commencement of the thirteenth to the latter half of the seventeenth century, there was an almost entire cessation of earthquakes in Syria and Judea; and, during this interval of quiescente, the Archipelago, together with part of the adjacent coast of Lesser Asia, as also Southern Italy and Sicily, suffered extraordinary convulsions; while volcanic eruptions in those parts were unusually frequent.

A more extended comparison … seems to confirm the opinion, that a violent crisis of commotion never. It is impossible for us to declare, as yet, whether this phenomenon is constant in this, or general in other regions, because we can rarely trace back a connected series of events farther than a few centuries; but it is well known that, where numerous vents are clustered together within a small area, as in the many archipelagos for instance, two of them are never in violent eruption at once.


  1. Der fliegende Holländer (German Edition).
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  6. While at Mauritius Darwin was unable to inspect the entire island himself and sought information from other sources. See VI, pp.