LOG IN. Abstract Through an investigation into the origins of American food marketing, this dissertation reveals how branding—specifically, the centennial brands Quaker Oats, Coca-Cola, and Crisco—came to underpin much of today's market-driven economy. If you would like to authenticate using a different subscribed institution that supports Shibboleth authentication or have your own login and password to Project MUSE.
Additional Information. Project MUSE Mission Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. But before we can understand how this growth contributed to what is known in the 21st Century as corporate personhood, we need to define a few terms. Goal 6: To understand the problems between labor and management during the Gilded Age.
History of marketing - Wikipedia
Background: The American Civil War was followed by a boom in railroad construction. Thirty-five thousand miles of new track was laid across the country between and At that time, the railroad industry was the nation's largest employer outside of agriculture, and it involved large amounts of money and risk. Speculators infused cash into the markets and thus caused abnormal growth in industry as well as overbuilding of docks, factories and related facilities.
In September , the nation experienced the largest economic crash in its history. The crash was the consequence of over-speculation in the railroad industry which, in turn, brought down many of the nation's largest banks. A five year depression followed the crash - a depression that was especially devastating for the growing number of urban poor.
But as ordinary Americans suffered, the super rich - the Robber Barons - used the crisis as an opportunity to buy up foundering competitors. Morgan was one of these men who wanted to get rid of what he called "wasteful competition. For smaller industrial firms, the situation was desperate; as capital reserves dried up, so did their industries. The Robber Barons, led by the financial wizardry of J. Morgan, attacked free market competition by buying out their smaller competitors at rock bottom prices.
Conspicuous consumption versus desperation. By , over millionaires lived in the United States; half of them lived in New York City where their lives were marked by conspicuous consumption - thereby helping them to earn their label, the Robber Barons. An example of such conspicuous consumption occurred in , when after the completion of their New York City mansion, the Vanderbilt's threw a party that showcased their immense wealth, as well as the wealth of their millionaire friends. The picture is of Mrs.
Enterprise & Society
Vanderbilt as Electric Light. Her gown glitters with an unknown number of real diamonds.
As the panic deepened, ordinary Americans suffered terribly. Between and , as many smaller factories and workshops closed down, tens of thousands of workers - many former Civil War soldiers - became transients.
Entrepreneurship in the United States, 1865–1920
The terms "tramp" and "bum" became commonplace American terms. As both the wealth of robber barons and the unemployed soared, so did the resentment of the workers and their families. Relief rolls exploded in major cities, with 25 percent unemployment , people in New York City alone. Unemployed workers demonstrated in Boston, Chicago, and New York in the winter of demanding public work.
In New York's Tompkins Square in January , police entered the crowd with clubs and beat up thousands of men and women. The most violent strikes in American history followed the panic, including by the secret labor group known as the Molly Maguires in Pennsylvania's coal fields in , when masked workmen exchanged gunfire with the "Coal and Iron Police," a private force commissioned by the state. A nationwide railroad strike followed in , in which mobs destroyed railway hubs in Pittsburgh, Chicago, and Cumberland, Maryland. But when the Depression was over in , conflict between the Robber Barons who were richer than ever, and the urban poor, who were poorer than ever, increased rather than diminished.
Working conditions were horrendous during the Gilded Age. In alone, 22, railroad workers were killed or injured on the job. Thousands of others died or were crippled in the nation's mines, steel mills, and textile mills. Not only were workers angry about poor working conditions and mistreatment, they were especially upset about losing their jobs to local or imported strikebreakers and increasing efforts of management to destroy their unions.
As many employers shut down their plants and attempted "to starve" their employees out of the union, violent outbreaks occurred in the North, South, and West, in small communities as well as in large metropolitan cities. Perhaps the worst, as well as the most famous of all riots occurred in Chicago's Haymarket Square on Tuesday, May 4, It began as a rally in support of striking workers when an unknown person threw a bomb at police as they tried to disperse the public meeting.
The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of eight police officers and an unknown number of civilians. Consequently, eight anarchists were tried for murder. This engraving shows the seven anarchists sentenced to die for the death of a police officer. The eighth defendant, not shown here, was sentenced to 15 years in prison. Four were put to death, one committed suicide in prison, and two had their sentences commuted to life imprisonment. In , Governor Atgeld commuted the sentence of the three remaining in prison.
While workers reacted to the denial of their rights to belong to labor unions and resorted to strikes when conditions became unbearable, the outcome of their violent behavior never changed the course of events - the owners won and the workers lost. Thus, America's Gilded Age witnessed deep and sometimes violent divisions over the definition of freedom in a rapidly industrializing society.
The battle continued into the 20th Century - a battle that pitted the Robber Barons who saw freedom as the opportunity to pursue economic interests without governmental regulation, against workers who believed freedom lay in collective efforts to create safe industrial opportunities for ordinary Americans.
As industrialization grew in the late 19th century, more people came to American cities for jobs in the new industries. It stands to reason, then, that America became more urban. Just what does this mean? By , the nation had only 25 cities with more than 50, people - with a total population of 5 million.
By , there were 58 cities that size with nearly 12 million people; most were in the Northeast and near the Great Lakes. By , cities were in great evidence in the east and mid east; but as the map shows, they were still quite scarce in the west. By , New York City had 4 million residents! What happened was fairly simply and also quite remarkable - after the Civil War as new technologies encouraged the growth of new industries where many jobs were readily available, huge cities grew to house both the growing number of industries and the growing number of industrial workers.
The vast majority of cities grew with only minimal, if any planning. Most choices about land use and construction were made by individual landowners, developers, and builders who wanted to make large profits.
So what were the consequences of rapid urbanization during the Gilded Age? On the positive side, urbanization brought new jobs, new opportunities, new housing, and new transportation; but on the negative side, urbanization gave rise to widespread urban poverty, sub-standard housing, environmental degradation, increasing crime and violence, violent clashes between labor and management, and political corruption.
The U. By , immigration really began to grow - and as it did, new immigrants contined to be a large percentage of the 19th century population. Making secret pacts with other industrialists that allowed them to make huge profits and discouraged or eliminated competitors.
Paying their workers very poorly with wages that were at best subsistence level wage slavery and with no benefits. Working the federal and state political systems to make sure there was no government regulations on their businesses. Framing their success by relating it to Social Darwinism and the American tradition of Calvinism - private property held greater value than individual interests; poverty was the fault of the impoverished and sinful; and the social classes were not equal - especially rich and poor, capitalist and laborer.
Promoting the "rags to riches" belief that anyone in America who worked hard enough, could be rich. Horatio Alger popularized this idea through his famous book, Raggedly Dick. Congress through generous federal subsidies designed to encourage entrepreneurial industrial growth - free land to build railroads, high foreign tariffs on goods to eliminate competition, etc.
States were the legal entities that grant corporate charters. Obtaining a charter simply required filling out a short form and paying a modest fee. Only if the corporation stated that it planned to break the law could a charter be denied. Contemporary cultural and religious institutions - the schools, churches, and literature of the time - all produced one important message - to be rich was a sign of superiority and to be poor a sign of personal failure.
Law enforcers and military personnel through strike breaking. Supreme Court which made decisions favoring industrial entrepreneurship.
In , the Scott Paper Company began selling the first toilet paper on a roll; however, toilet paper in roll form did not become common until The Gatling gun was a hand-driven, crank-operated, multi-barrel, machine gun, the first with reliable loading,. This machine could produce more than 7, cigarettes and hour, replacing the worker who at best made 3, per day.
Miners took large quantities of coal and iron ore from the ground. Andrew Carnegie and other business leaders made steel from these minerals. In turn, steel played a vital role in the industrialization process. It was used to build machines, railroad tracks, bridges, automobiles, and skyscrapers. Other industrially valuable minerals included copper, silver, and petroleum. Petroleum - the source of gasoline - became especially important as that newest of popular inventions, the automobile, became more popular in the early 20th Century.
An urban area is characterized by higher population density and higher concentrations of services in comparison with the surrounding areas.